dialética negativa

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Cronologia pré-história e antiguidade



Observações sobre a aula de 25/08/2014
o Homo sapiens originou-se na África há cerca de 200 mil anos. O homem moderno é o homo sapiens sapiens, a única subespécie sobrevivente do homo sapiens, que existe há 50.000 anos.

As escritas mais antigas são a cuneiforme e o hieróglifo, e foram criados há cerca de 5500 anos. A primeiras inscrições egípcias datam de 3200 a.C.
Os egípcios desenvolveram o papiro, que vem de planta, por volta de 2500 a. C. O pergaminho vem de pele de animal, cabra, carneiro ou ovelha, e começa a ser produzido  no sec. 2 a. C.
O Codex se inicia em torno de 300 d. C.
 A imprensa de Gutenberg começa em 1436 e se espalha pela Europa ao logo do século XV, e vai mesmo se estabelecer no séc. XVI.

Aristóteles (em grego antigo: Ἀριστοτέλης, transl. Aristotélēs; Estagira, 384 a.C. — Atenas, 322 a.C.) foi um filósofo grego, aluno de Platão e professor de Alexandre, o Grande.[2]
A Poética (em grego antigo: Περὶ ποιητικῆς; em latim: poiétikés), provavelmente registrada entre os anos 335 a.C. e 323 a.C. (Eudoro de Souza, 1993, pg.8), é um conjunto de anotações das aulas de Aristóteles sobre o tema da poesia e da arte em sua época, pertencentes aos seus escritos acroamáticos (para serem transmitidos oralmente aos seus alunos) ou esotéricos (textos para iniciados).
Horacio
Quinto Horacio Flaco (en latín Quintus Horatius Flaccus) (Venusia, hoy Venosa, Basilicata, 8 de diciembre de 65 a. C. – Roma, 27 de noviembre de 8 a. C.), fue el principal poeta lírico y satírico en lengua latina.
Longino (en griego:Λογγίνος) o Pseudo-Longino
es el nombre habitual que se da al autor del tratado Περὶ ὕψους (Sobre lo sublime), que especifica especialmente el concepto de "grandeza" en la literatura. Longino (probablemente Dionisio Longino), debió ser un profesor de retórica o crítico literario de cierta tendencia neoplatónica que pudo vivir entre el siglo I y el siglo III.
Marco Fabio Quintiliano,
en latín Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (Calagurris Nassica Iulia, c. 35 – Roma, c. 95). Fue un retórico y pedagogo hispanorromano.
Su fama proviene de su Institutio oratoria (c. 95 d. C.), una obra enciclopédica que recoge todo cuanto es necesario para formar a un orador, en doce volúmenes. C

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trojan_War
Those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War are derived from a specific historical conflict usually date it to the 12th or 11th centuries BC, often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BC, which roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy VIIa.
Guerra de Troia AO 1990 foi um grande conflito bélico entre gregos e troianos, possivelmente ocorrido entre 1300 a.C. e 1200 a.C. (fim da Idade do Bronze no Mediterrâneo).

êxodo
The Exodus in traditional chronology is assigned date of 1496 BCE, considered impossible to some scholars,[49] while others dismiss the literal value of this biblical dating.[50] 

Aunado a esto, poner fecha al Éxodo también ha sido un gran reto. Hay diferentes hipótesis, pero ninguna prueba histórica que lo confirme:
  • Alrededor del final de la era de los hicsos
  • Alrededor del 1420 a. C., puesto que existen documentos sobre la invasión de Canaán por parte de los habiru cuarenta años más tarde ―esta hipótesis casa bien con la idea actual de que el personaje histórico de Moisés era el décimo quinto príncipe del rey de Egipto del siglo xv a. C. llamado Ra-mose, que también desapareció de los expedientes egipcios alrededor de la época de la muerte de la reina Hatshepsut.
  • Durante el siglo xiii a. C., pues el faraón durante la mayoría de ese tiempo fue Ramsés II, el cual se considera habitualmente que fue el faraón con el cual se tuvo que enfrentar Moisés –conocido como «el faraón del Éxodo» o «el faraón opresor» de quien se dice haber obligado a los hebreos a construir las ciudades de Pithom y Ramesés. Estas ciudades se conocen por haber sido construidas bajo Seti I y Ramsés II, haciendo a su sucesor Merenptah el posible «faraón del éxodo». Sin embargo, en la estela de Merenptah del 5.º año del citado faraón (1208 a. C.), se narra que «Israel está acabado, no queda ni la semilla». Además, en 1898 se descubrió la momia de Merenptah, pues no había perecido ahogado.
  • Una hipótesis más reciente y controvertida afirma que Moisés era un noble de la corte del faraón Akenatón. Muchos estudiosos, desde Sigmund Freud hasta Joseph Campbell sugieren que Moisés pudo haber abandonado Egipto tras la muerte de Akenatón (1358 a. C.) cuando las reformas monoteístas del faraón fueron rechazadas violentamente.89 Las principales ideas que apoyarían esta hipótesis serían que la religión monoteísta de Akenatón era la predecesora del monoteísmo de Moisés, y una colección contemporánea de las Cartas de Amarna,90 escritas por los nobles para Akenatón, describen bandas asaltantes de habirus atacando territorios egipcios.91

3rd Millennium BCE
Hymns, codes, instructions and laments (Sumerian)
3rd Millennium BCE
Pyramid and coffin texts (Egyptian)
20th Century BCE
Original version of “The Epic of Gilgamesh” (Sumerian)
20th Century BCE
“The Story of Sinuhe” (Egyptian)
18th Century BCE
“Enuma Elis”, “Atra-Hasis” and “Eridu Genesis” (Babylonian/Akkadian)
16th Century BCE
“Egyptian Book of the Dead” (Egypt)
16th - 11th Century BCE
“Rigveda” (Indian/Sanskrit)
11th Century BCE
“The Tale of Two Brothers” and “The Story of Wenamun” (Egypt)
11th - 9th Century BCE
“Yajurveda”, “Samaveda” and “Atharvaveda” (Sanskrit/Indian)
11th - 6th Century BCE
“Avesta” of Zoroastrianism (Avestan/Persian)
9th Century BCE
“I Ching” manual of divination (China)
9th - 7th Century BCE
“Brahmanas” and the early “Upanishads” (Sanskrit/Indian)
9th - 6th Century BCE
Older parts of the "Old Testament" of the “Bible”, including the “Torah”(Hebrew)
8th Century BCE
Epic poems “The Iliad” and “The Odyssey” of Homer and other Trojan War epic poems (Greek)
8th Century BCE
Didactic poetry of Hesiod, including “Theogony” (Greek)
8th Century BCE
“Mahabharata” of Vyasa (Sanskrit/Indian)
7th - 6th Century BCE
Lyric poems of Sappho (Greek)
6th Century BCE
“Fables” of Aesop (Greek)
6th - 5th Century BCE
“Four Books” of Confucius (Chinese)
5th Century BCE
Lyric poems and odes of Pindar (Greek)
5th Century BCE
Tragic plays of Aeschylus, including “The Oresteia” and “The Persians”(Greek)
5th Century BCE
Tragic plays of Sophocles, including “Antigone” and “Oedipus the King”(Greek)
5th Century BCE
Tragic plays of Euripides, including “Medea”, “The Trojan Women” and“The Bacchae” (Greek)
5th - 4th Century BCE
Comic plays of Aristophanes including “The Wasps”, “Lysistrata” and“The Frogs” (Greek)
4th Century BCE
“Ramayana” of Valmiki (Sanskrit/Indian)
4th - 3rd Century BCE
Comic plays of Menander (Greek)
3rd Century BCE
Epic poetry of Apollonius of Rhodes including The Argonautica (Greek)
2nd Century BCE
Comic plays of Plautus and Terence(Latin/Roman)
1st Century BCE
Lyric and elegiac poetry of Catullus (Latin/Roman)
1st Century BCE
Epic and didactic poetry of Vergil, including “The Aeneid” (Latin/Roman)
1st Century BCE
Lyric poetry and satires of Horace (Latin/Roman)
1st Century BCE - 1st Century CE
Didactic, elegiac and epic poetry of Ovid, including “Metamorphoses”(Latin/Roman)
1st Century CE
Tragic plays and satires of Seneca the Younger (Latin/Roman)
1st Century CE
Epic poetry of Lucan (Latin/Roman)
1st - 2nd Century CE
Satires of Juvenal (Latin/Roman)
1st - 2nd Century CE
Letters of Pliny the Younger (Latin/Roman)
1st - 2nd Century CE
New Testament of the Christian “Bible” (Greek)
7th Century CE
“Caedmon's Hymn” (Old English/Anglo-Saxon)
7th Century CE
Traditional date for Islamic “Qur’an” (Arabic)
8th Century CE
Epic poem “Beowulf” (Anglo-Saxon)


753 BC Traditional date of founding of Rome.
  c.750-c.725 Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey.
  c.700 Works and Days of Greek epic poet Hesiod.
  c.620 Birth of Greek lyric poet Alcaeus.
  c.630 Birth of Greek lyric poet Sappho.
  c.580 Birth of Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras.
  c.560 Final editing, in Babylon, of the Pentateuch and the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings of the Hebrew Bible.
  c.518 Birth of Greek lyric poet Pindar.
  525/4-456/5 Aeschylus, Greek writer of tragedies.
  496/5-406 Sophocles, Greek writer of tragedies.
  c.485-406 Euripides, Greek writer of tragedies.
  c.465-c.386 Aristophanes, Greek writer of comedies.
  469-399 Socrates, Greek philosopher.
  c.480-c.425 Herodotus, Greek historian.
  c.460-c.400 Thucydides, Greek historian.
  c.430-c.355 Xenophon, Greek historian.
  c.429-347 Plato, Greek philosopher.
  384-322 Aristotle, Greek philosopher and critic.
  342-292/1 Menander, Greek writer of comedies.
  341-270 Epicurus, Greek philosopher.
  c300 Elements, by Euclid, Greek mathematician.
  c.287-212/1 Archimedes, Greek mathematician and inventor.
  c.285-c.215 Apollonius Rhodius, Greek epic poet.
  c.270 Theocritus, Greek pastoral poet, writing.
  c.260 In Alexandria, the Septuagint, first translation into Greek of the Biblical Pentateuch.
  254-184 Plautus, writer of comedies.
  240-207 Livius Andronicus writing plays and verse in Latin.
  239-169 Ennius, writer of tragedies in verse.
  234-149 Cato the “Censor”, historian and general writer.
  c.215 Fabius Pictor, first Roman historian, writing in Greek.
  c.200-c.118 Polybius, Roman historian who wrote in Greek.
  c.185-159 Terence, writer of comedies.
  116-27 Varro, scholar and critic.
  106-43 Cicero, orator and letter writer.
  100-44 Julius Caesar, military historian.
  c.99-55 Lucretius, poet and philospher.
  87-54 Catullus, lyric poet.
  86-35 Sallust, historian.
  c.70-8 Maecenas, patron of literature.
  70-19 Virgil, epic and pastoral poet.
  65-8 Horace, lyric poet.
  59-AD 17 Livy, historian.
  c.50-c.15 Propertius, elegiac poet.
  43-18 Ovid, elegiac and narrative poet.
  c.40 Vitruvius writing treatise on architecture.
  4-AD 65 Seneca the “Younger”, philosopher and scientist.
  AD 23-79 Pliny the “Elder”, historian and scientist.
  37-c.100 Josephus, Jewish historian who wrote in Aramaic and Greek.
  39-65 Lucan, epic poet.
  66 Death of Petronius, author of Satyricon.
  c.46-120 Plutarch, Roman historian and biographer who wrote in Greek.
  c.40-104 Martial, writer of verse epigrams and satire.
  c.55-c.117 Tacitus, historian and biographer.
  c.61-c.112 Pliny the “Younger”, letter writer.
  c.65-c.140 Juvenal, writer of verse satire.
  c.70-140 Suetonius, biographer.
  c.120 - c.180 Lucian, humorist, writing in Greek
  c.125 Birth of Apuleius, novelist.
  c.160 Appian, Roman historian, writing in Greek.
  c.165-c.235 Cassius Dio, Roman historian who wrote in Greek
  c.330-c.393 Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman historian.

0 Comments:

Post a Comment

<< Home